Monday, December 24, 2012

scientific errors in the quran


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Scientific Errors in the Qur'an
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This page lists various types of scientific errors in the Qur'an.
Contents

1 Evolution
1.1 Human created from clay
1.2 Humans were created from a single being
1.3 Creation of humans happened in an instant
1.4 Fall from paradise down to the earth
2 Astronomy
2.1 The sun set into the murky water
2.2 Geocentricism
2.3 Shooting stars are missiles for devils
2.4 How many planets in the solar system according to the Quran?
2.4.1 Tafsir Ibn Abbas explains they are all flat planets
2.5 The Moon is further away than the stars
2.6 Night time cold is caused by the Moon
2.7 The moon is "Noor", which emits light too
2.8 Moon split in two
2.9 The universe, earth or its atmosphere consists of 7 layers
2.10 The Sun is not a star
2.11 Where does the sun rise?
2.12 Earth created in six days
2.13 The earth existed before the universe
2.14 The Universe is contracting
2.15 The sun is a flat disk
2.16 Earth has invisible pillars keeping up the sky
2.17 Sirius as a single star
2.18 The sky is concrete and impenetrable
2.19 There are no black holes
2.20 Allah is ignorant of the North and South Poles
2.21 Thunder is an angel
2.21.1 Tafsir Ibn Abbas
2.22 What causes the movement of shadows?
2.23 The sky can fall down, the earth can swallow down
2.24 The Sky is made of rocky material
3 Biology
3.1 Sperm comes from between the spine/backbone and ribs
3.2 Only Allah knows what gender the baby is
3.3 Ovum contributed by female is not mentioned
3.4 Asexual creatures are absent in the Quran
3.5 The blood-clot stage in human reproduction
3.6 Womb (belly) has 3 layers
3.7 Bones are formed before flesh
3.8 Milk comes from between excrement and blood
3.9 Do humans think with their heart or with their brain?
3.10 Jinns created from fire
4 Geology and Meteorology
4.1 Earth has seven atmospheres
4.2 Earth is still
4.2.1 Tafsir Ibn Kathir
4.3 Different seas have an impenetrable barrier between them
4.4 The concept of a flat Earth
4.4.1 Earth is level
4.4.2 Earth is flat
4.4.2.1 Tafsir al-Jalalayn
4.4.3 Earth is like a couch
4.4.3.1 Tafsir Ibn Kathir
4.4.4 Earth is like a carpet
4.4.5 Earth shaped as "wide"
4.4.6 Earth spread out
4.4.6.1 Tafsir al-Jalalayn
4.4.7 Earth is flatter without mountains
4.5 Mountains prevent earthquakes
4.6 Allah dropped down/cast mountains
4.7 Breasts contract with height
4.8 Earthquakes are for non-Muslims only
4.9 Hurricanes/blizzards are punishments for Non-Muslims
4.10 Pure rainwater
4.11 Rain from the sky grows plants
4.12 Allah didn't know about Water Cycle
4.13 Hail comes from mountains on the sky
4.14 There's an extreme east and west
5 Zoology
5.1 Sinful animals
5.2 Bees eat fruit
5.3 Horses created for our transportation
5.4 Allah makes the bird fly
5.5 Quranic science on classification of creatures
5.6 There are only eight types of cattle
5.7 Allah is negligent about disabled creatures
5.8 Allah left out poisonous sea creatures in his dietary advice
5.9 Birds fighting elephants
6 History
6.1 Christians worship Mary
6.2 Noah's Ark for every species
6.3 Pharaoh or Pharaohs
6.4 Jews say Ezra is the son of Allah
6.5 Destroyed cities are punishment from Allah
6.6 Humans sleep for three-hundred years
6.7 Humans living for a thousand years
6.8 Muhammad sees an imaginary mosque?
7 Sociology
7.1 Allah was not aware of the Eskimos
7.2 Muslims are protected in Mecca
7.3 Non-Muslims are deaf, dumb, and blind
7.4 All animals live in communities
7.5 Islam is only for people who speak Arabic
7.6 The heavens and earth rejected the "Trust"
8 Supernatural Tales
8.1 Humans supernaturally transform into apes and pigs
8.2 Mythical werewolves will roam the Earth
8.3 Delicious buffet magically appears from the sky
8.4 A stick miraculously transforms into a serpent
8.5 Solomon with his army of genies and birds
8.6 Jonah performs repentance prayer inside a fish
8.7 Humans and ants can communicate with each other
8.8 Muhammad flies on a winged horse called Buraq to heaven
8.9 Body parts can rebel against the host
8.10 The ocean split into half
8.11 Solomon can control the wind
8.11.1 Ibn Kathir translation
8.12 A dead man testified against his killer
8.13 A monster speaks to humans
8.14 Magical Hand in the Qur'an
8.15 Mountains and birds can sing human song
9 Others
9.1 Mathematical error in hereditary laws
9.2 People use the forehead to lie
9.3 Space flight is impossible
10 See Also

Evolution

The Qur'an advocates creationism. It is incompatible with the thesis of human evolution from simpler life forms and natural selection. This is not very controversial as reliable statistics on the subject have shown most Muslims agree Islam and evolution are not compatible.
Human created from clay
Main Article: Creation of Humans from Clay

The scientific hypothesis postulates that clay merely 'match-makes' RNA and membrane vesicles - and therefore does not form a building block. This is contrary to the Islamic faith which postulates that human beings were created from clay, implying clay was a building block.
We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape;
Qur'an 15:26
To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is.
Qur'an 2:117
Humans were created from a single being

Some apologists will claim this is consistent with modern scientific knowledge. The Qur'an clearly states Eve was created later than (and from) Adam. Mitochondrial Eve lived some 50,000 to 80,000 years earlier than Y-chromosomal Adam.
"He it is Who created you from a single being, and of the same (kind) did He make his mate,"
Qur'an 7:189
Creation of humans happened in an instant
"To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is"
Qur'an 2:117
Fall from paradise down to the earth
"Then did Satan make them slip from the (garden), and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: "Get ye down, all (ye people), with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood - for a time."
Qur'an 2:36
Astronomy
The sun set into the murky water
Main Article: Dhul-Qarnayn and the Sun Controversy in the Qur'an

The Qur'an propagates the idea that the sun is smaller than the earth and assumes the sun goes to a black muddy pool.
Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky water: Near it he found a People: We said: "O Zul-qarnain! (thou hast authority,) either to punish them, or to treat them with kindness."
Qur'an 18:86
Geocentricism
Main Article: The Geocentric Qur'an

The Qur'an mentions numerous times that the Sun and the Moon travel in an orbit, but does not mention once that the Earth does too. This is consistent with the beliefs that were prevalent prior to the 16th century that the Sun revolved around the Earth.
And the Sun runs his course for a period determined for him: that is the decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, the All-Knowing.
Qur'an 36:38

The moon and the sun orbit the earth.

By the Sun and his (glorious) splendour;
By the Moon as she follows him;
Qur'an 91:1-2-1

Fixed.
Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft Forgiving.
Qur'an 35:41

Fixed.
It is God who made for you the earth a fixed place and heaven for an edifice; And He shaped you, and shaped you well, and provided you with the good things. That then is God, your Lord, so blessed be God, the Lord of all Being.
Qur'an 40:64

Sun and moon orbit around the earth.
And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float along in an orbit.
Qur'an 21:33

Sun orbits the earth.
And maketh the sun and the moon, constant in their courses, to be of service unto you, and hath made of service unto you the night and the day.
Qur'an 14:33

The sun moves, the earth is still.
Hast thou not Turned thy vision to one who disputed with Abraham About his Lord, because Allah had granted him power? Abraham said: "My Lord is He Who Giveth life and death." He said: "I give life and death". Said Abraham: "But it is Allah that causeth the sun to rise from the east: Do thou then cause him to rise from the West." Thus was he confounded who (in arrogance) rejected faith. Nor doth Allah Give guidance to a people unjust.
Qur'an 2:258

The shadow moves because of the sun's movement, not the earth's movement.
Hast thou not turned thy vision to thy Lord?- How He doth prolong the shadow! If He willed, He could make it stationary! then do We make the sun its guide;
Qur'an 25:45

Everything in the universe goes around us.
And He has made subservient to you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, all, from Himself; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.
Qur'an 45:13

The stars are small enough to drop on us.
And when the stars fall
Qur'an 81:2

Stars or planets rising and setting?
The stars which rise and set
Qur'an 81:16

This verse clearly implies the sun goes around the earth.
It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float in an orbit.
Qur'an 36:40
Shooting stars are missiles for devils
Main Article: Deceptive Translations of Qur'an 67:5

Meteors appear to be missiles to shoot the devil away. This was a prevalent myth in Arabia. As we now know, meteors are simply masses of particle debris which brighten up after entering the earth's atmosphere.
And verily We have beautified the world's heaven with stars/lamps, and We have made them missiles for the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flame.
Qur'an 67:5
Except such as snatch away something by stealth, and they are pursued by a flaming fire, of piercing brightness.
Qur'an 37:10
How many planets in the solar system according to the Quran?

This verse claims there are seven planets. However, according to astronomers, there are eight ordinary planets and five dwarf planets, which leaves the grand total at thirteen.
Allah is He Who created seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah comprehends, all things in (His) Knowledge.
Qur'an 65:12
Tafsir Ibn Abbas explains they are all flat planets

The paternal cousin of Muhammad and conspicuous expert on tafsir (interpretation of the Qur'an) writes that Allah means that all 7 are flat planets.
Allah is He who created 7 heavens one above the other like a dome, and of the Earths, the like thereof, 7 planets but they are flat
Tafsir Ibn-Abass
The Moon is further away than the stars

The moon is located in the middle of the universe.

See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another,
'And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious) Lamp
Qur'an 71:15-16

But stars are in the nearest/lowest part of the universe.
Surely We have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment, the stars
Qur'an 37:6
Night time cold is caused by the Moon

The Qur'an's author assumed by what he observed because the Moon does not affect Earth's temperature in any manner.
Reclining in the (Garden) on raised thrones, they will see there neither the sun's (excessive heat) nor (the moon's) excessive cold.
Qur'an 76:13
The moon is "Noor", which emits light too

The moon does not emit light. The Arabic word for reflected (in`ikaas) does not appear in this sentence.
And hath made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp?
Qur'an 71:16

The word "Noor" here also means an entity that emits light.
Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp: the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star: Lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it: Light upon Light! Allah doth guide whom He will to His Light: Allah doth set forth Parables for men: and Allah doth know all things.
Qur'an 24:35
Moon split in two
Main Article: Moon Split Miracle

There is no evidence whatsoever that the moon has ever split into two. The absence of historical record from other civilizations, contemporary of Muhammad about the moon being split substantiate to this fact.
The hour drew nigh and the moon was rent in twain.
Qur'an 54:1
The universe, earth or its atmosphere consists of 7 layers
Main Article: Earth Made of Seven Layers

The universe consists of trillions of galaxies with billions of stars each. There is no such thing as seven layers to the universe.
See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another
Qur'an 71:15

There are only 5 not 7 principal layers to the Earth's atmosphere, and likewise only 5 not 7 major layers to the Earth itself.
Allah is He Who created seven heavens, and of the earth the like of them; the decree continues to descend among them, that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah indeed encompasses all things in (His) knowledge.
Qur'an 65:12
The Sun is not a star

According to Islam, the Sun and stars are two completely different things. Modern science tells differently:
Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o'er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds!
Qur'an 7:54
Where does the sun rise?

The sun rises equally upon every human on earth on a daily basis, except in the poles. However, the Qur'an advocates the geocentric idea and flat earth concept in the verse below:
Until, when he came to the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had provided no covering protection against the sun.
Qur'an 18:90
Earth created in six days
Main Article: Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Creation

The earth took billions of years to form after Big bang.
We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in Six Days, nor did any sense of weariness touch Us
Qur'an 50:38
The earth existed before the universe

There was no planet during or before the Big Bang.
Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?
Qur'an 21:30

The earth was created prior to the heaven.
He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things.
Qur'an 2:29
The Universe is contracting

Firstly, inanimate objects can't speak. Secondly, we have recently come to know the universe is expanding, not contracting.
Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: "Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly." They said: "We do come (together), in willing obedience.
Qur'an 41:11
The sun is a flat disk

This verse suggests that the Sun is flat and can be folded up.
When the sun (with its spacious light) is folded up
Qur'an 81:1
Earth has invisible pillars keeping up the sky

This originated from the ancient Greek myth.
Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see
Qur'an 13:2

This shows a lack of knowledge of astronomy. There is nothing in the heavens or sky to "raise", with or without pillars.
Sirius as a single star

The singular form used in this verse negates the fact that Sirius is actually a double star.
And that He it is Who is the Lord of Sirius
Qur'an 53:49
The sky is concrete and impenetrable

The asteroid and meteorites penetrated the atmosphere to hit the earth throughout the course of history, there is no guardian whatsoever to prevent the incidents from happening.
And We have made the heavens as a canopy well guarded: yet do they turn away from the Signs which these things (point to)
Qur'an 21:32
There are no black holes

The evidence of Black Hole indicates certain degree of instability in the galaxy. Black holes absorb stars and even galaxies in regions of space where from which no entity, including light, can escape.
Who created the seven heavens one above another; you see no incongruity in the creation of the Beneficent Allah; then look again, can you see any disorder?
Qur'an 67:3
Allah is ignorant of the North and South Poles
Main Article: The Ramadan Pole Paradox

In polar regions, the longevity of day and night vary during summer and winter. Muhammad didn't know about this and he only repeated earlier geocentric ideas:
It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.
Qur'an 36:40
Thunder is an angel

The Qur'an author was superstitious about thunder and regarded this natural phenomenon as an angel
And the thunder declares His glory with His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him; and He sends the thunderbolts and smites with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is mighty in prowess.
Qur'an 13:13
Tafsir Ibn Abbas

When we turn to the Muslim sources which explain this verse, it is rather apparent that the author of the Qur'an believed that thunder wasn’t simply an impersonal force, but an angel:
(The thunder hymneth His praise) by His command; it is an angel; it is also said: it is the voice of the sky (and (so do) the angels) and also the angels hymn His praise (for awe of Him) the angels have awe towards Allah. (He launcheth the thunder bolts) i.e. fire (and smiteth with them whom He will) He destroys by means of fire whoever He will, referring here to Zayd Ibn Qays whom Allah destroyed by fire, along with his friend ‘Amir Ibn al-Tufayl who was killed as a result of being stabbed in his waist (while they dispute (in doubt) concerning Allah) while they dispute with Muhammad (pbuh) concerning the Religion of Allah, (and He is mighty in wrath) His chastisement is severe
Tafsir Ibn-Abbas
What causes the movement of shadows?

The Qur'an says its the Sun's movement. This is false. The earth revolves around the sun and cause the movement of shadow.
Hast thou not turned thy vision to thy Lord?- How He doth prolong the shadow! If He willed, He could make it stationary! then do We make the sun its guide;
Qur'an 25:45
The sky can fall down, the earth can swallow down

The Qur'an author thought that the sky is like a ceiling that can fall on someone while the earth can swallow someone too.
See they not what is before them and behind them, of the sky and the earth? If We wished, We could cause the earth to swallow them up, or cause a piece of the sky to fall upon them. Verily in this is a Sign for every devotee that turns to Allah (in repentance).
Qur'an 34:9
The Sky is made of rocky material
What, have they not beheld heaven above them, how We have built it, and decked it out fair, and it has no cracks? And the earth -- We stretched it forth, and cast on it firm mountains, and We caused to grow therein of every joyous kind
Qur'an 50:6
Biology
Sperm comes from between the spine/backbone and ribs
Main Article: Qur'an and Semen Production

The Qur'an author was ignorant of the actual scientific knowledge except rehashing the prevalent scientific error of his contemporary. Today we know sperm comes from the testicles, not from between the spine and ribs.
He is created from a drop emitted .Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs
Qur'an 86:6-7
Only Allah knows what gender the baby is

Current technology, such as sonography, has enabled observation of baby's gender through ultrasonic imaging. There are also sex selection clinics that allow gender determination.
Verily the knowledge of the Hour is with Allah (alone). It is He Who sends down rain, and He Who knows what is in the wombs. Nor does any one know what it is that he will earn on the morrow: Nor does any one know in what land he is to die. Verily with Allah is full knowledge and He is acquainted (with all things).
Qur'an 31:34
Ovum contributed by female is not mentioned

The Qur'an author did not mention the role of the ovum due to his sole observation of the sperm during intercourse. This verse fails to mention the important role of the female egg in the reproduction of humankind.
He is created from a drop emitted
Qur'an 25:45
Asexual creatures are absent in the Quran
Main Article: Qur'anic Claim of Everything Created in Pairs

Not every creature procreates or reproduces through male and female sexual relationship. The whiptail lizard in the U.S. Southwest, Mexico, and South America, which consists only of females who reproduce by parthenogenesis. Allah does not know anything about the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. Today we know you can find an organism which creates a genetically-similar or identical copy of itself without a contribution of genetic material from another individual. There's also hermaphrodites.
And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction.
Qur'an 51:49
The blood-clot stage in human reproduction

There was never a stage of blood clot during the formation of humans inside the womb.
Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:
Qur'an 96:2
Womb (belly) has 3 layers

The word butun (بطن) means belly/abdomen/midriff, though some Muslim translators like to use the more specific word "womb". There are many more layers such as endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium, peritoneum, besides the cervix uteri, corpus uteri, abdomen (with walls), placenta (with layers). Perhaps this is the idea of 3 membranes around the fetus (chorion, allantois, and amnion) taught by the highly influencial Greek physician, Galen.
He created you (all) from a single person: then created, of like nature, his mate; and he sent down for you eight head of cattle in pairs: He makes you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness. such is Allah, your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion. There is no god but He: then how are ye turned away (from your true Centre)?
Qur'an 39:6
Bones are formed before flesh
Main Article: Embryology in the Qur'an

The Qur'an elaborates that the bones are formed and wrapped up with flesh. The first muscles are formed before the bones, and the rest are formed simultaneously though.
Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones then (not and) clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create!
Qur'an 23:14
Milk comes from between excrement and blood

The mammary glands where the milk is produced and stored are outside the body, while the excrement is in the intestines which is way inside the body. the two are nowhere near each other. Also, certain cattle milk needs processing, pasteurization, micro-filter, creaming and homogenization.
And verily in cattle (too) will ye find an instructive sign. From what is within their bodies between excretions and blood, We produce, for your drink, milk, pure and agreeable to those who drink it.
Qur'an 16:66
Do humans think with their heart or with their brain?

The author of the Qur'an assumed that humans think with their heart, while in reality we utilize the brain for that purpose.
Behold! they fold up their hearts, that they may lie hid from Him! Ah even when they cover themselves with their garments, He knoweth what they conceal, and what they reveal: for He knoweth well the (inmost secrets) of the hearts.
Qur'an 51:49
Jinns created from fire

In the past, people used to believe everything was made from 4 elements; Earth, wind, fire and water. However, fire is not a substance, but rather a reactionary chemical process.
And he created Jinn from fire, free of smoke.
Qur'an 55:15
Geology and Meteorology
Earth has seven atmospheres
Main Article: Earth Made of Seven Layers

In reality, there are five principal layers in the atmosphere determining temperature. Within these layers, there are four layers determined by other properties.
So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.
Qur'an 41:12
Earth is still

21st century astronomers tell us the Earth goes around the Sun. The Qur'an gives these views:
Is not He (better than your gods) Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water). Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not.
Qur'an 27:61
Tafsir Ibn Kathir
(Is not He Who has made the earth as a fixed abode,) meaning, stable and stationary, so that it does not move or convulse, because if it were to do so, it would not be a good place for people to live on. But by His grace and mercy, He has made it smooth and calm, and it is not shaken or moved
The Command to praise Allah and send Blessings on His Messengers
Tafsir Ibn Kathir
Different seas have an impenetrable barrier between them

Distinct salinity levels in one sea eventually become homogenized with the other sea. However, the Qur'an failed to include this subtlety.
Between them is a Barrier which they do not transgress
Qur'an 55:20
The concept of a flat Earth
Main Article: Flat Earth and the Qur'an
Earth is level

The Qur'an tells all mankind to face the direction of Mecca, but this would only be possible on a flat Earth. Since the Earth is spherical, it's not possible to bow down towards the direction of Mecca when you are in these places like Hawaii and LA which are on the opposite side of the earth.
From whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; that is indeed the truth from the Lord. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.
Qur'an 2:149
Earth is flat
And at the Earth, how it is spread out?
Qur'an 88:20
Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Note that N J Dawood's translation renders this verse as "The earth, how it was made flat?", and Tafsir al-Jalalayn agrees with him.
And the earth, how it was laid out flat?, and thus infer from this the power of God, exalted be He, and His Oneness? The commencing with the [mention of] camels is because they are closer in contact with it [the earth] than any other [animal]. As for His words sutihat, 'laid out flat', this on a literal reading suggests that the earth is flat, which is the opinion of most of the scholars of the [revealed] Law, and not a sphere as astronomers (ahl al-hay'a) have it, even if this [latter] does not contradict any of the pillars of the Law.
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
Earth is like a couch

The earth was shaped like a couch while the sky shaped as dome, this substantiate the flat earth concept in Qur'an:
Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your dome; and sent down rain from the heavens; and brought forth therewith Fruits for your sustenance; then set not up rivals unto Allah when ye know (the truth).
Qur'an 2:22
Tafsir Ibn Kathir
who has made the earth as flat and comfortable as a bed and placed upon it mountains standing firm... (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Part 1)
Ibn-Kathir
Earth is like a carpet
He Who has, made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky." With it have We produced diverse pairs of plants each separate from the others.
Qur'an 20:53
He Who has, made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky." With it have We produced diverse pairs of plants each separate from the others.
Qur'an 43:10
Earth shaped as "wide"
Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse,
Qur'an 78:6
Earth spread out
And the earth have WE spread out, and set therein firm mountains and cause every thing to grow therein in proper proportion
Qur'an 15:19
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
And the earth We have stretched it out, spread it flat, and cast therein firm mountains, lest it should sway beneath its inhabitants, and caused to grow therein every kind of balanced thing, [every kind of thing] known and determined.
Quran 15:19
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
Earth is flatter without mountains

Earth without mountains.
One Day We shall remove the mountains, and thou wilt see the earth as a level stretch, and We shall gather them, all together, nor shall We leave out any one of them.
Qur'an 18:47
They ask thee concerning the Mountains: say "My Lord will uproot them and scatter them as dust;He will leave them as plains smooth and level; Nothing crooked or curved wilt thou see in their place
Qur'an 20:105
Mountains prevent earthquakes
Main Article: The Qur'an and Mountains

Plate tectonic boundaries usually situated at the mountainous areas are highly unstable. The landmass of the earth has changed throughout history. But the Qur'an propagates the idea that mountains are crucial in stabilizing the earth.
And He has set up on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads; that ye may guide yourselves
Qur'an 16:15
Allah dropped down/cast mountains

Mountains are usually formed and produced by the movement of lithospheric plates, either orogenic movement or epeirogenic movement. They are not thrown downward like pegs.
And He hath cast into the earth firm hills that it quake not with you, and streams and roads that ye may find a way
Qur'an 16:15
Breasts contract with height
Main Article: Qur'an Describes Altitude Sickness

This verse says that your chest cavity gets smaller with higher altitude when in reality the opposite is true.
Those whom Allah (in His plan) willeth to guide,- He openeth their breast to Islam; those whom He willeth to leave straying,- He maketh their breast close and constricted, as if they had to climb up to the skies: thus doth Allah (heap) the penalty on those who refuse to believe.
Qur'an 6:125
Earthquakes are for non-Muslims only
Main Article: Accidents and Natural Disasters in the Muslim World

Some of the highest death tolls from natural disasters this millennium were in Muslim countries. In fact, natural disasters do not differentiate between Muslim or Non-Muslim nations.
Do then those who devise evil (plots) feel secure that Allah will not cause the earth to swallow them up, or that the Wrath will not seize them from directions they little perceive?
Qur'an 16:45
But they denied him, and the dreadful earthquake took them, and morning found them prostrate in their dwelling place.
Qur'an 29:37
Hurricanes/blizzards are punishments for Non-Muslims

Two of the deadliest blizzards in history happened in Muslim countries. However, the Qur'an regards those natural disasters as violent punishment from God.
Do ye then feel secure that He will not cause you to be swallowed up beneath the earth when ye are on land, or that He will not send against you a violent tornado (with showers of stones) so that ye shall find no one to carry out your affairs for you
Qur'an 17:68
Pure rainwater

The Qur'an says rainwater is pure, even though it has an average PH of 5.6. In some industrial areas rainwater can also be toxic.
And He it is Who sends the winds as good news before His mercy; and We send down pure water from the cloud,
Qur'an 25:48
Rain from the sky grows plants

The Qur'an fails to mention evaporation or the photosynthesis process because the Arabs uttered what they observed on the desert in which the plant will grow immediately after raining.
Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens; and brought forth therewith Fruits for your sustenance; then set not up rivals unto Allah when ye know (the truth).
Qur'an 2:22
Allah didn't know about Water Cycle

Every verse about rain in the Qur'an implies that rain comes either directly from the sky or from God. The evaporation of water into the air was conveniently not mentioned because the author of the Qur'an was unable to observe it.
That sends down (from time to time) rain from the sky in due measure;- and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead; even so will ye be raised (from the dead)
Qur'an 43:11

If Allah sends rain in "due measure" then how do you explain floods? Or perhaps, living in waterless deserts, the author of the Quran has been unaware of the concept of torrential and destructive rainfall.
Hail comes from mountains on the sky

Hail forms in cumulonimbus clouds when supercooled water droplets freeze on contact with condensation nuclei. However, the Qur'an mistakenly ascribed the hail's formation to the imaginary mountains on the sky.
Seest thou not that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? - then wilt thou see rain issue forth from their midst. And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) wherein is hail: He strikes therewith whom He pleases and He turns it away from whom He pleases, the vivid flash of His lightning well-nigh blinds the sight.
Qur'an 24:43
There's an extreme east and west

Dhul-Qarnayn went to the most extreme corner of the earth on one edge, and then moved to the other edge. This attested to the flat earth concept propagated by the Qur'an. Tafsir Qurtubi also accepts this interpretation and even claims only Zul Qarnayn has seen the "supporting pillar mountains".
Then followed he (another) way,
Qur'an 18:89
Zoology
Sinful animals

According to Allah, all animals will join us in the hereafter to be judged for their sins. So basically, in the hereafter, chicken, mankind, insects, and lions will stand side by side waiting our trial from the All Mighty lord Allah. This despite the fact that animals are not as self-aware as humans and work on instinct.
There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end.
Qur'an 6:38
Bees eat fruit

Bees feed on nectar and pollen. However, Muhammad and his companions thought that bees consume fruit.
And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in (men's) habitations;Then to eat of all the fruits (of the earth), and find with skill the spacious paths of its Lord: there issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colors, wherein is healing for men: verily in this is a Sign for those who give thought.
Qur'an 16:68-69
Horses created for our transportation

It took thousands of years of domestication, evolution and cross-breeding. Horses were domesticated approximately 4,000 years ago in East Europe or Central Asia. Prior to this, horses were wild and need to be tamed, the Qur'an apparently neglect this important fact. Never mind the fact that we create our own transportation now with cars, planes etc.
And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys, for you to ride and use for show; and He has created (other) things of which ye have no knowledge.
Qur'an 16:8
Allah makes the bird fly

The aerodynamic shape of the bird's wing function as an essential factor so that the difference in the air pressure between the lower and upper part of its wing able to push the bird upward. The wings evolved over millions of years to acquire this feature. But the Qur'an described this ability in the simplest religious way.
Do they not look at the birds, held poised in the midst of (the air and) the sky? Nothing holds them up but (the power of) Allah. Verily in this are signs for those who believe
Qur'an 16:79
Quranic science on classification of creatures

The Qur'an author observed creatures of the desert using their bellies (snake) or two legs (human) or four legs (lizard) to move. However, he failed to include creatures such as Millipedes that have a thousand legs.
And Allah has created every animal from water: of them there are some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills for verily Allah has power over all things.
Qur'an 24:45
There are only eight types of cattle

In actual fact, there are more than a dozen kinds of cattle. The word "of cattle" in 39:6 is al-ana'ami, meaning pasturing (i.e. grazing) animals. The word azwajin ("kinds" in the translation of 39:6 below) generally means mate or member of a pair. Qur'an 6:143-144 clarifies that these refer to male and female pairs of sheep, goats, oxes and camels. This neglects other types of cattle from the regions outside of Arabia such as reindeer, which are important to people in northern latitudes.
He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate; and He hath provided for you of cattle eight kinds. He created you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, in a threefold gloom. Such is Allah, your Lord. His is the Sovereignty. There is no Allah save Him. How then are ye turned away
Qur'an 39:6
Allah is negligent about disabled creatures

Apparently Allah is unaware that he creates disabled animals and humans too.
Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou (Muhammad) canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any flaw?
Qur'an 67:3
Allah left out poisonous sea creatures in his dietary advice

A lot of sea creatures are deadly for example the puffer fish, poison dart frog, marbled cone snail, blue ringed octopus and stonefish. But Allah says we can eat all types of seafood.
Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food,- for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel; but forbidden is the pursuit of land-game;- as long as ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. And fear Allah, to Whom ye shall be gathered back.
Qur'an 5:96
Birds fighting elephants

Birds and elephants have never been recorded fighting each other in nature.
Sees thou not how Allah dealt with the companions of the elephants?
Qur'an 105:1
And he sent against them flights of birds.
Qur'an 105:3
History
Christians worship Mary

Mary was never worshipped by Christians as part of the Trinity. On the other hand, the Qur'an reiterated Muhammad's misunderstanding on the concept of the Trinity:
And behold! Allah will say: "O Jesus the son of Mary! Didst thou say unto men, worship me and my mother as gods in derogation of Allah'?" He will say: "Glory to Thee! never could I say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, thou wouldst indeed have known it. Thou knowest what is in my heart, Thou I know not what is in Thine. For Thou knowest in full all that is hidden
Qur'an 5:116
Noah's Ark for every species

How was it possible to accommodate each species of male and female from all over the world inside an Ark?
At length, behold! there came Our command, and the fountains of the earth gushed forth! We said: "Embark therein, of each kind two, male and female, and your family - except those against whom the word has already gone forth,- and the Believers." but only a few believed with him.
Qur'an 11:40
Pharaoh or Pharaohs

Geographically, the Coptic land of Egypt was adjacent to Arabia. Thus, most Arabs were aware of the preservation method applied by the ancient Egyptian to their Pharaohs. There were so many Pharaohs ranging from numerous dynasties, many of them were preserved intact. But the Qur'an merely narrated one Pharaoh that was preserved.
This day shall We save thee in the body, that thou mayest be a sign to those who come after thee! but verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Signs!"
Qur'an 10:92
Jews say Ezra is the son of Allah

Historically, there was not a single Jew who held such a view. The Jews were historically strict monotheists. But the Qur'an accused them of polytheism. Maybe the Sahaba couldn't think of anything wrong with Judaism so they made something up.
The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!
Qur'an 9:30
Destroyed cities are punishment from Allah

The Qur'an author thought that outside the vicinity of Arabia there were cities and tribes destroyed by God. He acquired this hearsay from Arabian folklore as well as Jews and Christians sources. Those cities and tribes probably were destroyed by natural disasters or wars. For Muhammad, it's always God's way to deal with human.
Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the End of those before them? They were more numerous than these and superior in strength and in the traces (they have left) in the land: Yet all that they accomplished was of no profit to them.
Qur'an 40:82
Humans sleep for three-hundred years

A human never sleeps for more than two days, unless he or she is in the state of comatose. However, the Qur'an incorporated this myth from Arabian and Christian folklore of the Seven Sleepers.
Then We sealed up their hearing in the Cave for a number of years.
Qur'an 18:11
Humans living for a thousand years

There has never been recorded in actual history about human with such massive age. Moreover, science has never attested to this based on the fossil records. Nevertheless, the Qur'an is replete with this unsubstantiated myth.
We (once) sent Noah to his people, and he tarried among them a thousand years less fifty: but the Deluge overwhelmed them while they (persisted in) sin.
Qur'an 29:14
Muhammad sees an imaginary mosque?

Muslims claim that Al-Aqsa mosque is mentioned in the Qur'an as the furthest mosque. Even though there was obviously no mosque in Jerusalem during Muhammad's time.
Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).
Qur'an 17:1
Sociology
Allah was not aware of the Eskimos
Main Article: The Ramadan Pole Paradox

Muhammad was apparently unfamiliar with polar regions in which there are six months without sunlight and six months perpetual night during winter and summer. This injunction is arguably not observable by Eskimos. Could it be that God is ignorant about the night and day inequality phenomenon in the poles? The Qur'an claims that one should fast from sunrise till sunset.
...then complete your fast Till the night appears;...
Qur'an 2:187

Same circumstances with the five daily prayers. How are Eskimos going to pray sunset prayers all year round? Allah forgot to mention it or Muhammad and the Sahaba didn't know? The universality of the Islamic message is debatable here.
Establish regular prayers - at the sun's decline till the darkness of the night, and the morning prayer and reading: for the prayer and reading in the morning carry their testimony.
Qur'an 17:78
Muslims are protected in Mecca
Main Article: Hajj

False promise by Allah. Juhayman al-Otaybi and Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, and Abu Tahir al-Janabi killed thousands of Muslim pilgrims in Mecca. Moreover, Yazid Bin Muawiya sent a battalion of army to attack Mecca and desecrated the Kaaba. The safety of Mecca is debatable here as there is no historical evidence pointing to that effect.
Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Isma'il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
Qur'an 2:125
Allah made the Ka'ba, the Sacred House, an asylum of security for men, as also the Sacred Months, the animals for offerings, and the garlands that mark them: That ye may know that Allah hath knowledge of what is in the heavens and on earth and that Allah is well acquainted with all things.
Qur'an 5:97

There was no "Abaabil" bird to strike and halt them when they perpetrated bloodshed in Mecca.
Striking them with stones of baked clay.
Qur'an 105:4
Non-Muslims are deaf, dumb, and blind
Main Article: Golden Age

Muslims call non-believers "deaf dumb and blind" but all the science and technology in the Muslim world is almost exclusively purchased from the non-Muslim world. Computers, TV's, space shuttles, helicopters, media players, nuclear bombs, cameras, satellites, birth control pills, vaccination for smallpox, telephones, radios, light bulbs, microchips, CDs, games consoles, refrigerators, microwaves, stainless steel, plastic, aluminium, x-rays, polio-vaccine, anti-biotics, heart-transplants etc. were all invented by non-Muslims.
Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will not return (to the path)
Qur'an 2:18
All animals live in communities

Some animals or living beings such as the jaguar or leopard or spiders are well known for being solitary loners. They are certainly not in communities.
There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end.
Qur'an 6:38
Islam is only for people who speak Arabic

The total number of languages in the world is between 5,000 and 10,000. However, It is incumbent upon Muslims to pray in Arabic, recite the Qur'an in Arabic and understand hadith and tafsir in Arabic.
We have made it a Qur'an in Arabic, that ye may be able to understand (and learn wisdom).
Qur'an 43:3
The heavens and earth rejected the "Trust"

Heaven and Earth were afraid of the "Trust", in contradistinction with human. But mountains are just geological physical features without emotions.
We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it;- He was indeed unjust and foolish
Qur'an 33:72
Supernatural Tales
Humans supernaturally transform into apes and pigs

Sabbath breakers are transformed into apes.
And well ye knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: We said to them: "Be ye apes, despised and rejected."
Qur'an 2:65
Mythical werewolves will roam the Earth

The modern satellite GPS system failed to trace the location of Ya'juj and Ma'juj. According to the Qur'an, these two beast tribes concealed themselves behind a metal wall.
Until the Gog and Magog (people) are let through (their barrier), and they swiftly swarm from every hill.
Qur'an 21:96
Delicious buffet magically appears from the sky

No human ever experience food falling from the sky to feed their hunger.
Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Allah, Lord of us! Send down for us a table spread with food from heaven, that it may be a feast for us, for the first of us and for the last of us, and a sign from Thee. Give us sustenance, for Thou art the Best of Sustainers.
Qur'an 5:115
A stick miraculously transforms into a serpent
Main Article: Parallelism Between the Qur'an and Judeo-Christian Scriptures
Then (Moses) threw his rod, and behold! it was a serpent, plain (for all to see)!
Qur'an 7:107
Solomon with his army of genies and birds

Throughout history, kings and emperors had commanded huge and small amount of armies. None was ever recorded to possess armies that entirely consists of birds and genies. This is unique to the Qur'an.
And Solomon was David's heir. He said: "O ye people! We have been taught the speech of birds, and on us has been bestowed (a little) of all things: this is indeed Grace manifest (from Allah.)And before Solomon were marshalled his hosts― of Jinns and men and birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks.
Qur'an 27:16-17

He spoke with a Hoopoe bird and wanted to punish it for a small error.
And he took a muster of the Birds; and he said: "Why is it I see not the Hoopoe? Or is he among the absentees? I will certainly punish him with a severe Penalty, or execute him, unless he bring me a clear reason (for absence).
Qur'an 27:20-22

The Hoopoe bird was in fact busy eavesdropping on a beautiful female ruler, Queen Sheba.
I found (there) a woman ruling over them and provided with every requisite; and she has a magnificent throne.
Qur'an 27:23
Jonah performs repentance prayer inside a fish

How can a human lived inside a fish and perform prayer of repentance in the stomach? Prophet Jonah according to the Qur'an did just that.
Then the big Fish did swallow him, and he had done acts worthy of blame.Had it not been that he (repented and) glorified Allah,He would certainly have remained inside the Fish till the Day of Resurrection.But We cast him forth, on the naked shore in a state of sickness
Qur'an 37:142
Humans and ants can communicate with each other

In fact, ants communicate with each other using pheromone, a chemical signal. However, King Solomon was able to do so.
So he smiled, amused at her speech; and he said: "O my Lord! so order me that I may be grateful for Thy favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: And admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants
Qur'an 27:18
Muhammad flies on a winged horse called Buraq to heaven
Main Article: Buraq

It took one week to travel from Mecca to the Farthest Mosque by camel. But the Buraq did that in a matter of minutes:
Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).
Qur'an 17:1
Body parts can rebel against the host

The limbs are controlled by the brain that conveys electrical signal through the nervous system. But the Qur'an believes that the limbs can talk and testify against the host:
On the Day when their tongues, their hands, and their feet will bear witness against them as to their actions.
Qur'an 24:24
The ocean split into half

Moses and the Israelis crossed the split ocean.
And remember We divided the sea for you and saved you and drowned Pharaoh's people within your very sight.
Qur'an 2:50
Solomon can control the wind

King Solomon had the authority to manipulate the wind at his command.
Then We subjected the wind to his power, to flow gently to his order, Whithersoever he willed
Qur'an 38:36
Ibn Kathir translation
A flying carpet made from wood, on top of which he could carry everything in his kingdom including chairs, to wherever Solomon wants to go, whilst flocks of birds would fly over to give shade
Ibn-Kathir
A dead man testified against his killer

Scientifically, a man who has died for a few days can never be resurrected. But with scripture, the supernatural overrules the natural world.
And We said: Smite him with some of it. Thus Allah bringeth the dead to life and showeth you His portents so that ye may understand.
Qur'an 2:72
A monster speaks to humans

Beastly creatures advising human about the truth.
And when the Word is fulfilled against them (the unjust), we shall produce from the earth a beast to (face) them: He will speak to them, for that mankind did not believe with assurance in Our Signs.
Qur'an 27:82
Magical Hand in the Qur'an

The hand that possesses shining power.
Now draw thy hand close to thy side: it shall come forth white (and shining), without harm (or stain)― as another Sign
Qur'an 20:22
Mountains and birds can sing human song

Prophet David the singer and metal welder.
And assuredly We gave David grace from Us, (saying): O ye hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise! And We made the iron supple unto him
Qur'an 34:10
Others
Mathematical error in hereditary laws

4.11: Allah (thus) directs you as regards your Children's (Inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females: if only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is a half. For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to each, if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased Left brothers (or sisters) the mother has a sixth. (The distribution in all cases ('s) after the payment of legacies and debts. Ye know not whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. These are settled portions ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Al-wise.
4.12: In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no child; but if they leave a child, ye get a fourth; after payment of legacies and debts. In what ye leave, their share is a fourth, if ye leave no child; but if ye leave a child, they get an eighth; after payment of legacies and debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question, has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies and debts; so that no loss is caused (to any one). Thus is it ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Most Forbearing.
Qur'an 4:11-12

wife: 1/8 = 3/24,
daughters: 2/3 = 16/24,
father: 1/6 = 4/24,
mother: 1/6 = 4/24,
total = 27/24=1.125

The total does not equal to 1. This error can never be reconciled in any way. For more detail, please see the Answering-Islam website.
People use the forehead to lie
Main Article: Qur'an and the Lying Prefrontal Cerebrum

Brain wave technology shows us electrical activity happens in the entire brain when deceitful. On the contrary, Muslims ascribed scientific knowledge even to this verse of torture below.
Let him beware! If he desist not, We will drag him by the forelock. A lying, sinful forehead.
Qur'an 96:15-16
Space flight is impossible

Space travel was pioneered by Non-Muslims fifty years ago. With current technology, mankind has already explored the end of the solar system. This verse however, implies that space travel is impossible without the consent of Allah. With dozens of atheist astronauts, you have to ask why an omniscient Deity made such an erroneous prophecy.
O ye assembly of Jinns and men! If it be ye can pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, pass ye! not without authority shall ye be able to pass!
Qur'an 55:33

makanye murtad dare eslam. ha...7x

YLU AMEN


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